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Regulatory Strategy & Submissions Articles and Insights

The Target Product Profile: Basics and Benefits

Defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a strategic development process tool, the Target Product Profile (TPP) “embodies the notion of beginning with the goal in mind.”[1] Broadly, the TPP is a template that summarizes key drug labeling concepts to focus discussions

505(b)(1) versus 505(b)(2): They Are Not the Same

The 505(b)(2) pathway can yield significant benefits in drug development cost and time. But what are the differences between 505(b)(1) and 505(b)(2)? Drug development pathways in the United States are referred to by their corresponding section in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act: 505(b)(1), 505(b)(2),

The Key to Streamlining Regulatory Approval for IVDs

Regulatory approval is the final hurdle sponsors face when launching an in vitro diagnostic (IVD). After spending many years and millions of dollars on development, it can prove frustrating when the finish is in sight, but there are barriers to success. Fortunately, many of those

PDUFA VII: More Changes Coming in the Latest Reauthorization

As we noted in a separate blog post, the forthcoming reauthorization of the FDA’s Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA VII) includes several provisions that are expected to help advance cell and gene therapy products, as well as therapies designed to treat rare diseases. However,

The Composition and Value of a Portfolio Analysis

One of Premier Consulting’s differentiating offerings is the portfolio analysis, a high-level, integrated evaluation of the scientific, medical, regulatory, and commercial viability of each product within a sponsor’s portfolio. Informed by today’s competitive drug development landscape, as well as by the sponsor’s strategic goals and

PDUFA VII: Implications for Developers of Cell and Gene Therapies

One of the biopharmaceutical industry’s most closely watched forthcoming regulatory developments is the FDA’s imminent reauthorization of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). PDUFA VII, as the reauthorization is commonly known, will cover the fiscal years 2023-2027. Many of the advancements included in PDUFA

Biologic Therapeutics Development, Part 2: Regulatory Pathways and Pharmacometric Analysis

Sponsors developing biologics must manage numerous scientific considerations specific to large-molecule products, including biochemical characterization studies to confirm structural identity, biological activity studies to confirm potency, and mechanism of action maintenance. Clinical trials of biologics are designed to determine pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety, and efficacy.

Advancing from Research to Development: What Can Go Wrong?

The drug development process is a long journey, beginning with drug discovery, moving through nonclinical and clinical studies, and ultimately culminating in regulatory approval. With many steps in between, each as important as the next, multiple factors regarding development strategy and approach must be considered

In the News: Regulatory and Development Updates

Rare Disease Clinical Trials Most Often Terminated Due to Regulatory and Recruitment Issues The difficulty associated with successfully completing rare disease clinical trials is well-known. Most people believe that recruitment is the primary reason because, by definition, the number of potential trial participants is extremely

Key Changes in the Revised EMA Guidance on Clinical Trials During COVID

In February, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) released the fourth version of its Guidance on the Management of Clinical Trials During the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Pandemic. As the pandemic continues to impact clinical research worldwide, these updated guidelines reflect the EMA’s evolving stance, clarifying questions raised by

Top 5 Common Misconceptions About Meeting with the FDA

Preparing to meet with the FDA can be challenging and stressful for sponsors, especially when they do not know what to expect. Many have misunderstandings about how meetings should be conducted and what constitutes success. Others find themselves needing to dispel incorrect preconceptions about this

FDA Designations for Rare Disease Products, Part 1

Comparing Orphan Drug, Rare Pediatric Disease, and Humanitarian Use Device Designations The FDA offers sponsors a variety of special programs to incentivize development of therapies to treat unmet patient needs, including fast track, breakthrough therapy, and qualified infectious disease product designations. This blog post initiates a four-part series

Don’t Underestimate the Value of a Pre-NDA Meeting

Drug development is a resource-intensive endeavor. Seeking input from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration throughout the journey can help optimize those resources and maximize the likelihood of regulatory approval. When preparing to submit a new drug application, a pre-NDA meeting with the FDA can

Multidisciplinary Team Advances Immuno-Oncology Development

Developing a product from concept to commercialization is a multi-faceted and risky process. Particularly for complex programs, development plans must be customized based on real-world patient experience and optimized for a product’s post-approval success. A cross-disciplinary team is essential for crafting and assessing complex development

Patient-Centered Drug Development for Oncology Products

Oncology patients face a difficult journey — a frightening diagnosis followed by intricate and oftentimes burdensome treatment regimens with uncertain outcomes. One patient struggles to take the correct dosage at the prescribed times through the “brain fog” caused by his cancer. Another’s livelihood is at

What to Expect from the FDA During COVID-19 Product Development

As the COVID-19 national emergency stretches on in the United States, the eyes of the pharmaceutical industry are trained on developing diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive measures to combat the novel disease. Given the significance of the pandemic and the critical need, the FDA has developed

Three Keys to Preparing Effective Pre-IND Meeting Questions

Updated on: April 19, 2021 Asking the appropriate questions during a pre-IND meeting with the FDA is a critical step in planning a development program. A Pre-Investigational New Drug Application (pre-IND) meeting can be a valuable component in planning a development program. For companies that

Snapshot: A New Guidance Document Program From the FDA

As a regulatory affairs professional advising various stakeholders on the interpretation and implementation of guidance documents from the FDA, I can safely say that the task is challenging in the best of cases. FDA guidance documents have a tendency to be vague and difficult to

Statistical Considerations for FDA COVID-19 Guidance

In response to the newly released U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on COVID-19, the Statistics Department at Premier Research has committed to highlight specific and necessary actionable considerations that directly address key FDA recommendations in the guidance. These considerations call attention to some general actions required

Why Did My NDA Become a BLA on March 23, 2020?

During these challenging times when the world is focused on COVID-19 and the matters at hand, it’s understandable if you didn’t take much notice of March 23 as a significant date – one that’s been on the FDA’s radar for a while. March 23, 2020,

UPDATE – Draft FDA Guidance Concerning Combination Products

As those working in the development of combination products likely know, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued two new draft guidances in December 2019. The guidances – Requesting FDA Feedback on Combination Products and Bridging for Drug-Device and Biologic-Device Combination Products – were published in response to the 21st Century

Streamline Early Clinical Development With an INTERACT Meeting

In October 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Standard Operating Policy and Procedure (SOPP) – SOPP 8214 Version 1.0: INTERACT Meetings with Sponsors for Drugs and Biological Products. This document details recommendations for the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)’s engagement with

GDUFA I and II: Considerations for Complex Generics Innovators

The increasing complexity of brand-name drugs has made development of generic alternatives more challenging as well. As complex generic drug products can provide a high-value opportunity for drug development companies, they are similar to 505(b)(2) products in that they may require early and flexible interaction

505(b)(2) Nonclinical Development: Examples and Advantages

The 505(b)(2) new drug application (NDA) pathway can provide unique advantages from the nonclinical development perspective that can save significant time, money, and resources. Compared to the 505(b)(1) NDA pathway, which is more standardized and follows the general guidance provided by the International Conference on

New FDA Guidance on OTC Products

Innovative Thinkers: FDA wants YOU FDA just released a very brief (barely three pages of actual text) guidance promoting innovation in new drug applications (NDAs) involving nonprescription (aka over-the-counter, OTC) drug products. In the guidance, “Innovative Approaches for Nonprescription Drug Products, Guidance for Industry’ (CDER

Rx-to-OTC Switch: Expanding to the US Over-the-Counter Market

Changing the marketing status of a drug from prescription (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC), known as an Rx-to-OTC switch, can increase drug utilization by an average of 30% (Stomberg et al. 2013). According to the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA), more than 700 current OTC products

Product Selection: Which Product to Develop?

Product Selection and the Importance of Early Strategic Design for Success Why do some new drug products gain approval, but launch with lower-than-anticipated drug sales? Why then can some drug products gain approval and launch and perform well commercially? Is it possible to align a

Navigating Clinical Holds

Sponsors spend countless hours developing Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, which are the US FDA’s regulatory gateways for conducting clinical trials of investigational drug and drug-device combination products. The stakes are high for companies as they submit their initial IND, as the ability to start

The Target Product Profile: Your Strategy to Reduce Development and Review Time

Updated on: January 26, 2021 It is a story all too common: A drug product is developed, approved, and launched, only to flop in the marketplace. There are various reasons that such products underperform or fail, but frequently the cause is a lack of commercial strategy to help sponsors develop a roadmap to follow from the start through development, approval, and launch. While a focus on FDA

Pre-IND Meetings: How to Achieve Success for 505(b)(2)

One of the greatest mistakes the sponsor of a 505(b)(2) product can make is to have an unsuccessful pre-IND meeting. Errors often occur at the pre-IND meeting because sponsors and CROs that are more familiar with traditional 505(b)(1) development programs fail to appreciate the different

PRO-CTCAE: Improving Oncology Drug Development

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide valuable tools for collecting information on subjective symptomatic effects during clinical trials. They are considered the gold standard for the assessment of health-related quality of life, treatment preferences, and satisfaction with care. PRO results from a well-defined and reliable PRO instrument

505(b)(2) Application Changes: What You Need to Know

Title XI of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) of 2003 was enacted in order to address concerns that had potential to delay access to more affordable drugs. The FDA has been implementing the MMA via the statute since it was enacted

Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) Basics

The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for ensuring that human drugs are safe and effective, while also advancing public health by helping to speed product innovations. In determining if a drug should be marketed, the Agency must weigh the benefits of the therapy against

Pitfalls of Changing the Salt of a Listed Drug

The 505(b)(2) registration pathway for new drug products allows the applicant of the new drug product to reference the literature and the FDA’s findings of safety and/or effectiveness (e.g., as listed on the Listed Drug product’s label) to fulfill various registration requirements. From a nonclinical

Abuse Deterrence Labeling – Generic vs 505(b)(2) Drug Development

With the ongoing opioid epidemic, drug abuse, diversion, and misuse are significant concerns for the FDA. The current opioid abuse problems also present significant opportunities for companies willing to explore new formulation technologies to deter abuse. Premier Consulting has significant experience in opioid abuse and abuse-deterrent

The New FDA Draft Guidance on Chewables

An idea for a more convenient dosage form for an existing drug product often presents an opportunity for a commercial advantage. Fortuitously, it also presents the possibility for using the 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway to product approval, which is often faster and less expensive than the

Back to Basics: 505(b)(2) FAQs Part 3: Regulatory Strategies

As the 505(b)(2) expert, Premier Consulting is frequently asked questions about how to get a product approved via the 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway and if this pathway is appropriate. Given the growing popularity of the 505(b)(2) pathway for approval of repurposed, reformulated, or unapproved-marketed products, we

The Regulation of Follow-On Biological Products via 505(b)(2)

Strike While the Iron is Hot In December 2015, the U.S. FDA granted approval for Eli Lilly and Company’s Basaglar (insulin glargine injection), a long-acting human insulin product indicated for glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. Basaglar marked the first “follow-on” insulin therapy to

Pediatric Applicability or Not–This Revised Guidance Is for You

Since 1994, the statutory and regulatory requirements for drug product labeling for pediatric populations have been evolving. The FDA Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) contained incentives for conducting pediatric studies on drugs that had exclusivity or patent protection. In 2003, the Pediatric Research Equity Act

Enforcement Activities: FDA removes unapproved prescription ear drops

For years FDA has threatened to remove unapproved products (so-called DESI products) from the marketplace. Recently, the FDA took enforcement action against  several unapproved prescription ear drops.  What products will be next?  DESI producers can use the 505(b)(2) pathway to avoid such actions on their products. Let’s take a

Examining the Amarin VASCEPA Saga

The headlines and newscasts reported Amarin’s success in wining off-label promotion, but behind the scenes, another noteworthy action took place – in a very rare action, the FDA rescinded a special protocol assessment (SPA) that would have enabled Amarin to promote the new indication. In

Quality Metrics – Coming Soon to Your Manufacturing Facility

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began requiring drug efficacy, in addition to safety, for approval in 1962 based on the Kefauver-Harris Amendment. Despite this requirement, many drugs that have been approved by FDA have limited efficacy (eg, drugs that treat cancer or Alzheimer’s disease).

To List or Not to List – That is the Question

A 505(b)(2) may rely on the FDA’s previous findings of safety and efficacy  of an approved drug product. It is possible to rely on more than one approved drug product.  It is also possible that a 505(b)(2) applicant does not have to rely on any approved

REMS/ETASU and Safe Use in Bioequivalence trials

We’ve previously commented regarding the predilection of RLD holders whose product approvals include a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) and Elements To Assure Safe Use (ETASU) to use the REMS/ETASU as a barrier to entry for generic completion. Specifically, the RLD holder will refuse

MAPPing out the timing of a Complete Response submission

A type of FDA document which sometimes slides past under the radar is  MAPP, that is, Manual of Policies and Procedures.  These are actually internal FDA documents which are generally analogous to the SOPs FDA requires that industry have and follow.  However, by virtue of

Extending Exclusivity: How Long Will It Really Last?

Last week at the Generic Pharmaceutical Association (GPhA) Annual Meeting, the 21st Century Cures Act, a proposed bill with bipartisan support, was a topic of discussion. Specifically, subtitle L—Dormant Therapies, which would offer 15 years of exclusivity for drugs and biologics approved as dormant therapies.

Therapeutic Equivalence Ratings Under 505(b)(2)

The FDA listing of therapeutic equivalence (TE) ratings can be a murky area for products approved under 505(b)(2) applications. The concept of TE ratings emerged from FDA regulations for generics and revolve around the announcement that the FDA would publish a current listing of all

Alkermes Prodrug for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: NCE?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began requiring drug efficacy, in addition to safety, for approval in 1962 based on the Kefauver-Harris Amendment. Despite this requirement, many drugs that have been approved by FDA have limited efficacy (eg, drugs that treat cancer or Alzheimer’s disease).

Paper Submissions: Going, going…away

In order to fulfill a requirement specified in Section 745A(a) of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (aka FDASIA), FDA recently issued a draft guidance directing mandatory use of electronic filing and formatting for most regulatory submissions which currently can still be submitted

Importing pre-launch products with a bit of PLAIR

With the tsunami of activities connected with the initial implementation of all the GDUFA requirements, another change made by FDA went largely under the radar.  FDA released the draft guidance, “Pre-Launch Activities Importation Requests (PLAIR)”. (CDER July 2013) which describes how an NDA/ANDA applicant may

ANDA but No NDA – What to Rely on?

Premier Consulting participates in multiple pre-IND (PIND) meetings each month and one thing we notice in the FDA minutes is that the boilerplate answer to ‘does the Agency agree this ….. is appropriate for filing under 505(b)(2)?’ keeps getting longer.  Recently, the Agency (or, at

PREA – Pediatric Plan Timing Changed by PDUFA V

The Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA; also known as PDUFA V), signed into law on July 9, 2012, contains amendments to the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) that specifically detail the timing of the submission of a Pediatric Study Plan (PSP). In

New PDUFA V Meeting Timelines

PDUFA V ushered in new industry and FDA commitments. Among these are changes in meeting timelines. A significant change from PDUFA IV is the timeline for Type A meetings. Under PDUFA IV the meeting package was due 30 days in advance of the meeting. Now,

Are 505(b)(2)s “Super Generics,” or what do we call them?

When Premier Consulting was young, products approved under 505j were called “generics” and 505(b)(1) “new drugs.” There was no consensus name for products approved via 505(b)(2). Of course, at the time there had been very few 505(b)(2) products approved. By now, we have seen an

No 5-Year Exclusivity for Combinations Drugs with an NCE

One anomaly to the exclusivity rules is that a combination drug product containing a new chemical entity (NCE) and one or more previously approved drugs does not receive the 5-year exclusivity that a single-component NCE drug would receive. Thus, Ferring Pharmaceuticals Prepopik (sodium picosulfate, citric

Orphan Designation without Exclusivity: Court asked to decide

Yesterday, Depomed filed suit against the FDA requesting the Court to order FDA to grant their product Gralise (gabapentin) seven years of exclusivity since it was granted Orphan status; upon approval, Gralise was granted three years of exclusivity. Depomed licensed the product to Solvay which became

New Generic Stability Requirements

After much delay, FDA just released the new guidance on the stability requirements to file and obtain approval of a generic drug product and API under 505j. The new requirements bring ANDAs closer in line with NDAs and ICH. The new requirements as summarized in

When is an IND required?

Most of us know that a BA/BE study of a generic can be done without an IND (the exception, called a Bio-IND, is when the drug being studied is cytotoxic or a radioactive labeled drug). In 505(b)(2) drug development we often are studying the BA/BE

Target Product Profile

In any project development program an understanding of the program goal is critical to finding the shortest path to the final result. Generation of a Target Product Profile early in a development program facilitates reaching the goal of a marketed drug product. It provides a

FDA’s Determination of Vyvanse as NME Upheld

On March 4, 2010 the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia agreed that FDA was within its rights to grant Shire’s Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) NME status and thus, 5-years exclusivity. New Rivers Pharmaceuticals (NRP) was the original sponsor of the lisdexamfetamine NDA. During the

Can and Should ANDA Labeling Differ from the RLD?

In the past two months, two appellate courts, the Fifth Circuit and the Eighth Circuit have handed down decisions which essentially state that generic pharmaceutical companies can be sued in state courts for failure-to-warn regarding serious side effects, where the generic companies had conformed their

Analytical Requirements for Oral Solutions

Analytical requirements for the NDA submission of an oral solution to the FDA are very similar to those requirements for any new drug product. The analytical methods that are used for the testing of an oral solution at the NDA stage of development should be

505(b)(2) Approval Standards – Referenced Studies

Awareness of current FDA standards and those of its various divisions is important when preparing a new submission. A basic premise for a 505(b)(2) submission to the Agency is that the application contains full reports of investigations of safety and effectiveness. However, for 505(b)(2) applications, at least

Authorized Generics Q&As

What would be the regulatory path for an authorized generic, in general? Authorized generics (AG) are prescription drugs that are produced by the NDA holder and marketed under a private label, at generic prices. This circumstance typically presents itself when the NDA holder still has

Reference Listed Drugs (RLDs): Can More Than One Be Used?

Can a 505(b)(2) NDA have more than one RLD? In a word, the answer is “yes.” When using the 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway, sponsors may rely on the agency’s previous findings of safety and/or efficacy of an already approved product which is termed the reference listed

REMS or RiskMAP or what?

On 30 September 2009, the FDA issued a new draft guidance for industry: Format and Content of Proposed Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS), REMS Assessments, and Proposed REMS Modifications. The guidance describes the content and format of a REMS, which the FDA was authorized

Biosimilars: An Introduction

Related to the current frantic activity regarding health care in the US, there is a smaller struggle concerning biosimilars that in many ways mirrors the larger health care struggle. Drug products made from small molecules are regulated primarily by the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

Comparability Protocols

What do you need to do when you need to change suppliers or manufacturing sites? Among the many choices is a formal FDA comparability protocol. Advance planning can improve the possibility that the FDA accepts your proposed change. One alternative that can streamline the process

DESI Products: Q&A

The FDA is moving against DESI drugs and DESI producers are wondering if their products are next on the chopping block. Here are a few commonly asked questions about how that will affect DESI producers. Will a 505(b)(2) of a DESI receive exclusivity? Yes, the

Test Specifications for Stability Studies

Pivotal stability programs that are used to generate stability data for NDA submissions are different than research stability programs used to design the drug product, explore packaging configurations, etc. This is common sense, but we have seen instances of pivotal stability programs that have been

ANDA Suitability Petition vs 505(b)(2)

I was honored to be invited to speak at the FDA-OCRA 12th Annual Educational Conference in Irvine California on June 10, 2009.  I was asked to discuss and compare the 505(b)(2) and ANDA Suitability Petition.  I thought I should share this topic with the readers

Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for long-acting opioids

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) heard testimony on May 27 and 28, 2009, regarding the effort to develop a class-wide Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for long-acting opioids products that contain fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone or oxymorphone. The public hearing was held to

505(b)(2) Literature Searches – Too much or too little?

A 505(b)(2) submission relies on information in the public domain to fulfill some of the information required in an NDA for approval. This information comes from more than the reference drug’s NDA review documents. In fact, for older drugs, the amount of information can be

PREA and 505(b)(2)

Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) (21 U.S.C. 355c), all applications for new active ingredients, new indications, new dosage forms, new dosing regimens, or new routes of administration are required to contain an assessment of the safety and effectiveness of the product for the

Paragraph IV Certifications under 505(b)(2)

What is the difference between a Paragraph IV certification between the 505j (ANDA, generic) and 505(b)(2)? None.  The difference is the exclusivity outcome – 505(b)(2) never gets any exclusivity based on patent certification. In a U.S. drug application, in Module 1, Administrative Documents, you must